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ATLANTA, Oct. 1, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Landis+Gyr (SWISS: LAND.SW) announced its support for the Wi-solar FAN Certification software launched by passage of the Wi-solar Alliance previous nowadays. As a Promoter Member of the Wi-sun Alliance that holds a Board of directors place, Landis+Gyr joins other member businesses in promoting the implementation of open, requirements-based container enviornment community (FAN) and the internet of things (IoT).
Utilities occupy utilized sphere belt networks to provide coverage for speaking property reminiscent of smart meters, sensors and automation contraptions across their carrier territory. With the growth in sensible city functions, ordinary specifications for FAN connectivity will extend the selections purchasable for purposes and contraptions in a position to breathe fraction of the community.
Wi-sun's FAN Certification program will supply compliance testing of community accessories and devices to a communications profile developed from pertinent open standards and certify the product's aptitude to interoperate.
"Landis+Gyr strongly supports this certification endeavor for the long Run value it'll add for utility grid modernization and IoT courses," illustrious Marius Chilom, Senior vice president and Chief technology Officer of solutions for Landis+Gyr. "The improved the interoperability, the greater advantageous these networks may breathe for the next wave of sensible grid and smart metropolis functions."
"Certification ensures interoperability, which is essential to the extend of IoT innovation," talked about Phil Beecher, President and CEO, Wi-solar Alliance. "we are pleased to officially launch the FAN Certification application and are excited for the first wave of FAN-licensed products to breathe deployed into the market starting Q1 2019."
The certification application will get certain utilities, cities and repair providers occupy access to adaptable, multi-service networks that will befriend get sure interoperability into the longer term. different key merits for community operators consist of:
less complicated evaluation of latest products, as habits, performance and interoperability are smartly-defined.
greater preference of products and carriers.
Encourages global progress of requirements-based mostly items, cutting back the possibility and dear occupy an repercussion on of stranded property.
All Wi-solar licensed products are fastidiously confirmed via a Wi-sun appointed third-birthday party verify lab to ensure the instruments toil together readily and securely for rapid time to market. licensed instruments comprise a digital certificate to authenticate entry to a Wi-sun FAN, vastly reducing vulnerability to cyber safety threats. under a separate agreement, Wi-sun Alliance has appointed GlobalSign as the third-birthday celebration service provider of digital certificates for the Wi-solar FAN certification program.
About Landis+GyrLandis+Gyr is the leading international provider of integrated power administration solutions for the utility sector. offering one of the vital broadest portfolios of products and functions to exploit tangled trade challenges, the company supplies comprehensive options for the basis of a better grid, including smart metering, distribution network sensing and automation tools, load control, analytics and power storage. Landis+Gyr operates in over 30 countries throughout five continents. With revenue of approximately USD 1.7 billion, the business employs c. 6,000 americans with the only true mission of assisting the world manage power more advantageous. more assistance is purchasable at www.landisgyr.com.
in regards to the Wi-solar AllianceThe Wi-solar Alliance is a global non-profit member-based mostly affiliation made up of business main groups. Its mission is to power the international proliferation of interoperable instant options for expend in smart cities, sensible grids and other web of issues (IoT) applications the expend of open international requisites from groups, such as IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With greater than a hundred and eighty individuals worldwide, membership of the Wi-sun Alliance is open to complete industry stakeholders and comprises silicon vendors, product providers, capabilities providers, utilities, universities, companies and municipalities and endemic government businesses.For more tips, gladden contend with: www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-sun Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance brand are trademarks of the Wi-solar Alliance.
Paves a passage to accelerate IoT conclusion gadget Interoperability
SAN RAMON, Calif., Oct. 1, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- The Wi-sun Alliance, a world ecosystem of member agencies searching for to speed up the implementation of open specifications-based mostly container enviornment Networks (FAN) and the cyber web of issues (IoT), these days announced its FAN Certification software. FAN is a communications infrastructure for extremely gigantic-scale networks. In the selfsame method you employ the internet on a smartphone or computing device, a box belt community lets contraptions interconnect onto one regular network.
the provision of the FAN Certification program is the result of the vision, collaboration and dedication of a pair of Wi-sun Member companies. through the certification software, the Wi-solar Alliance certifies items in accordance with their compliance to a communications profile derived from applicable open requirements and their aptitude to interoperate with other Wi-sun licensed products.
The FAN Certification application will certify instruments for expend by using utilities, metropolis developers and other provider suppliers to simplify and befriend tremendous-scale, outside networks for smart cities, smart utilities and different IoT rollouts – and to aid reduce charges and delays. Wi-solar contributors blueprint to promulgate certified products in this autumn 2018.
Proprietary methods are not any longer sufficiently flexible, or as competitively priced as solutions in response to open requisites, and should revolve into much less valuable within a pair of years. Adhering to the Wi-solar FAN profile in response to open IEEE and IETF requirements makes it viable for carrier suppliers, sapient cities and utilities to install adaptable multi-provider networks and should assist breathe certain interoperability, no longer simplest nowadays, but too for a long time to come.
"Wi-sun continues to breathe on the forefront of IoT innovation, and as cities, utilities and the business grows their IoT networks, they're increasingly recognizing that business-broad open necessities are fundamental for interoperability and scalability," says Phil Beecher, President and CEO of the Wi-sun Alliance. "FAN Certification is an endorsement for governments and the industry that their individuals' products are compliant to those open necessities, and safeguards best, interoperability, safety, scalability – and ultimately gives customers a aggressive competencies."
Key advantages of FAN Certification consist of:
offers utilities, cities and repair suppliers adaptable multi-carrier networks in order to aid breathe sure interoperability today and for future generations.
Reduces the time obligatory to evaluate recent items, as behavior, efficiency and interoperability are smartly described.
Eliminates single-vendor lock-in.
Encourages the progress of a global ecosystem of requirements-based products, reducing the possibility and costly influence of stranded belongings.
All Wi-solar certified products are carefully confirmed by an authorized Wi-solar appointed third-birthday party examine lab to breathe sure the devices toil collectively without vicissitude and securely for quick time to market. certified instruments encompass a digital certificate to authenticate entry to a Wi-sun FAN network, vastly decreasing vulnerability to cyber security threats. under a separate contract, Wi-solar has selected GlobalSign to give certificate Authority (CA) functions to Wi-sun Alliance member corporations.
Third party comments:
Alex Davies, Senior Analyst, Rethink expertise research and Editor of rebel: "Open specifications are some of the most advantageous how you can get certain mass adoption of a expertise. As with WiFi and the 3GPP mobile protocols, Wi-sun's FAN is providing varied decisions for tackle and know-how suppliers to facilitate customer hobby. energy suppliers and grid operators are concerned about supplier lock-in, specially due to the lengthy life cycles of their deployments. To this end, Wi-sun should soundless supply a solution to their mission-vital issues that different LPWAN alternatives can not. It opens the door for them to extend into other IoT markets, with smart cities a tremendous opportunity."
Iker Urrutia, supervisor, smart Grids, Avangrid: "IoT networking options according to open specifications and licensed to the Wi-solar FAN profile may breathe crucial in obtaining actual interoperability for utility functions, corresponding to AMI, accelerating the digitization of the grid in a value useful means."
Colton Ching, Senior vice chairman of Planning & technology at Hawaiian electric powered: "We proceed to peer Wi-sun expertise as a major enabler for giant-scale IoT purposes perquisite through Hawaii with the supply of its FAN Certification application. The Wi-sun Alliance and its individuals occupy taken a major step forward in bringing multi-vendor, interoperable options to fruition."
FAN Certification Availability: The FAN Certification software has been developed through the collaboration of Wi-sun member corporations, together with product providers and collaborators taking fraction in interoperability pursuits to exhibit the requirements and certification test software. here are among one of the most businesses who were actively leading a passage to certification: Analog contraptions, Cisco, EPRI, Itron, Kyoto institution/Nissin systems, Landis+Gyr, ProCubed, Renesas and ROHM Europe.
To gain learning of extra about the passage to publish your products to breathe licensed, gladden visit http://www.wi-sun.org
making certain a product is compliant will too breathe complicated so the Wi-solar Alliance is fervent to aid and exploit any issues. gladden breathe fraction of Wi-solar for an upcoming webinar on Oct sixteen, 2018 at 8AM PT. during this webinar they will give an overview of the significance of certification and the passage to navigate the manner to achieve FAN Certification. For extra counsel and to register gladden click on here https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/9187903284805872385.
about the Wi-sun AllianceThe Wi-sun Alliance is a world non-profit member-based mostly association made of trade leading groups. Its mission is to pressure the international proliferation of interoperable instant options for expend in sensible cities, sapient grids and other internet of things (IoT) purposes the usage of open global requisites from agencies, equivalent to IEEE802, IETF, TIA, TTC and ETSI. With more than one hundred eighty contributors international, membership of the Wi-solar Alliance is open to complete industry stakeholders and contains silicon companies, product providers, features providers, utilities, universities, organisations and municipalities and endemic government agencies.
For extra assistance, gladden search counsel from: www.wi-solar.org.
Wi-solar Alliance and the Wi-solar Alliance emblem are emblems of the Wi-sun Alliance.
These quizzes were written in accordance with the sun Java certification assessments. that you can ascertain extra Java questions in the Oracle quizzes fraction - the Java certifications prior to now provided with the aid of solar Microsystems, akin to sun certified Java Programmer (SCJP), are now fraction of the Oracle certification program.
The sun certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform examination changed into at the start the first step toward many advanced Java certifications and accepted as proof of fundamental Java potential by solar, apoplectic Hewlett-Packard, site IBM, Oracle, and Sybase. for the reason that then Oracle received sun certifications, but these questions may soundless prove useful for making ready for Java certification assessments.
Thirty questions in response to the goals for the solar certified Programmer for the J2SE 1.4 Platform examination.
This collection of questions become created to assist candidates prepare for the sun Microsystems licensed enterprise Architect for Java know-how examination. solar certifications occupy due to the fact that been rolled into the Oracle certification program, ed but these questions can too nevertheless exhibit helpful.
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This chapter explains what Android is, how and why it was developed, and where the platform fits in to the established mobile marketplace.
This chapter is from the bespeak
The mobile progress community is at a tipping point. Mobile users demand more choice, more opportunities to customize their phones, and more functionality. Mobile operators want to provide value-added content to their subscribers in a manageable and lucrative way. Mobile developers want the freedom to develop the powerful mobile applications users demand with minimal roadblocks to success. Finally, handset manufacturers want a stable, secure, and affordable platform to power their devices. Upuntil now sole mobile platform has adequately addressed the needs of complete the parties.
Enter Android, which is a potential game-changer for the mobile progress community. An innovative and open platform, Android is well positioned to address the growing needs of the mobile marketplace.
This chapter explains what Android is, how and why it was developed, and where the platform fits in to the established mobile marketplace.
To understand what makes Android so compelling, they must examine how mobile progress has evolved and how Android differs from competing platforms.
Way Back When
Remember passage back when a phone was just a phone? When they relied on fixed landlines? When they ran for the phone instead of pulling it out of their pocket? When they lost their friends at a crowded ballgame and waited around for hours hoping to reunite? When they forgot the grocery list (Figure 1.1) and had to find a payphone or drive back home again?
Figure 1.1 Mobile phones occupy become a crucial shopping accessory.
Those days are long gone. Today, commonplace problems dote these are easily solved with a one-button quicken dial or a simple text message dote “WRU?” or “20?” or “Milk and?”
Our mobile phones preserve us safe and connected. Nowadays, they roam around freely, relying on their phones not only to preserve in touch with friends, family, and coworkers, but too to relate us where to go, what to do, and how to execute it. Even the most domestic of events look to revolve around my mobile phone.
Consider the following true, but slightly enhanced for effect, story:
Once upon a time, on a warm summer evening, I was happily minding my own business cooking dinner in my recent house in rustic recent Hampshire when a bat swooped over my head, scaring me to death.
The first thing I did—while ducking—was draw out my cell and dispatch a text message to my husband, who was across the country at the time: “There’s a bat in the house!”
My husband did not immediately respond (a divorce-worthy incident, I thought at the time), so I called my Dad and asked him for suggestions on how to derive rid of the bat.
He just laughed.
Annoyed, I snapped a picture of the bat with my phone and sent it to my husband and my blog, simultaneously guilt-tripping him and informing the world of my treacherous domestic wildlife encounter.
Finally, I Googled “get rid of a bat” and followed the helpful do-it-yourself instructions provided on the Web for people in my situation. I too erudite that late August is when baby bats often leave the roost for the first time and learn to fly. Newly sensible that I had a baby bat on my hands, I calmly got a broom and managed to herd the bat out of the house.
Problem solved—and I did it complete with the befriend of my trusty cell phone, the former LG VX9800.
My point here? Mobile phones can unravel just about anything—and they rely on them for everything these days.
You notice that I used half a dozen different mobile applications over the course of this story. Each application was developed by a different company and had a different user interface. Some were well designed; others not so much. I paid for some of the applications, and others came on my phone.
As a user, I organize the experience functional, but not terribly inspiring. As a mobile developer, I wished for an occasion to create a more seamless and powerful application that could exploit complete I’d done and more. I wanted to build a better bat trap, if you will.
Before Android, mobile developers faced many roadblocks when it came to writing applications. structure the better application, the unique application, the competing application, the hybrid application, and incorporating many common tasks such as messaging and calling in a familiar passage were often unrealistic goals.
To understand why, let’s capture a brief peep at the history of mobile software development.
The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first commercially available cell phone. First marketed in 1983, it was 13 x 1.75 x 3.5 inches in dimension, weighed about 2.5 pounds, and allowed you to talk for a limited more than half an hour. It retailed for $3,995, plus hefty monthly service fees and per-minute charges.
We called it “The Brick,” and the nickname stuck for many of those early mobile phones they alternatively loved and hated. About the size of a brick, with a battery power just long enough for half a conversation, these early mobile handsets were mostly seen in the hands of traveling business execs, security personnel, and the wealthy. First-generation mobile phones were just too expensive. The service charges solitary would bankrupt the middling person, especially when roaming.
Early mobile phones were not particularly full featured. (Although, even the Motorola DynaTAC, shown in design 1.2, had many of the buttons we’ve further to know well, such as the SEND, END, and CLR buttons.) These early phones did limited more than get and receive calls and, if you were lucky, there was a simple contacts application that wasn’t impossible to use.
Figure 1.2 The first commercially available mobile phone: the Motorala DynaTAC.
These first-generation mobile phones were designed and developed by the handset manufacturers. Competition was fierce and trade secrets were closely guarded. Manufacturers didn’t want to expose the internal workings of their handsets, so they usually developed the phone software in-house. As a developer, if you weren’t fraction of this inner circle, you had no occasion to write applications for the phones.
It was during this age that they saw the first “time-waster” games originate to appear. Nokia was Famous for putting the 1970s video game Snake on some of its earliest monochrome phones. Other manufacturers followed, adding games dote Pong, Tetris, and Tic-Tac-Toe.
These early phones were flawed, but they did something important—they changed the passage people thought about communication. As mobile phone prices dropped, batteries improved, and reception areas grew, more and more people began carrying these handy devices. Soon mobile phones were more than just a novelty.
Customers began pushing for more features and more games. But, there was a problem. The handset manufacturers didn’t occupy the motivation or the resources to build every application users wanted. They needed some passage to provide a portal for entertainment and information services without allowing direct access to the handset.
And what better passage to provide these services than the Internet?
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
It turned out allowing direct phone access to the Internet didn’t scale well for mobile.
When the first clamshell phone, the Motorola StarTAC, was released in 1996, it merely had a LCD 10-digit segmented display. (Later models would add a dot-matrix sort display.) Meanwhile, Nokia released one of the first slider phones, the 8110—fondly referred to as “The Matrix Phone,” as the phone was heavily used in films. The 8110 could pomp four lines of text with 13 characters per line. design 1.3 shows some of the common phone shape factors.
Figure 1.3 Various mobile phone shape factors: the candy bar, the slider, and the clamshell.
With their postage stamp-sized low-resolution screens and limited storage and processing power, these phones couldn’t exploit the data-intensive operations required by traditional Web browsers. The bandwidth requirements for data transmission were too costly to the user.
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standard emerged to address these concerns. Simply put, WAP was a stripped-down version of HTTP, which is the backbone protocol of the Internet. Unlike traditional Web browsers, WAP browsers were designed to Run within the memory and bandwidth constraints of the phone. Third-party WAP sites served up pages written in a markup language called Wireless Markup Language (WML). These pages were then displayed on the phone’s WAP browser. Users navigated as they would on the Web, but the pages were much simpler in design.
The WAP solution was noteworthy for handset manufacturers. The pressure was off—they could write one WAP browser to ship with the handset and rely on developers to further up with the content users wanted.
The WAP solution was noteworthy for mobile operators. They could provide a custom WAP portal, directing their subscribers to the content they wanted to provide, and rake in the data charges associated with browsing, which were often high.
Developers and content providers didn’t deliver. For the first time, developers had a random to develop content for phone users, and some did so, with limited success.
Most of the early WAP sites were extensions of celebrated branded Web sites, such as CNN.com and ESPN.com, looking for recent ways to extend their readership. Suddenly phone users accessed the news, stock market quotes, and sports scores on their phones.
Commercializing WAP applications was difficult, and there was no built-in billing mechanism. Some of the most celebrated commercial WAP applications that emerged during this time were simple wallpaper and ringtone catalogues, allowing users to personalize their phones for the first time. For example, the users browsed a WAP site and requested a specific item. They filled out a simple order shape with their phone number and their handset model. It was up to the content provider to deliver an image or audio file compatible with the given phone. Payment and verification were handled through various premium-priced delivery mechanisms such as Short Message Service (SMS), Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and WAP Push.
WAP browsers, especially in the early days, were late and frustrating. Typing long URLs with the numeric keypad was onerous. WAP pages were often difficult to navigate. Most WAP sites were written once for complete phones and did not account for individual phone specifications. It didn’t matter if the end-user’s phone had a ample color screen or a postage stamp-sized monochrome one; the developer couldn’t tailor the user’s experience. The result was a mediocre and not very compelling experience for everyone involved.
Content providers often didn’t bother with a WAP site and instead just advertised SMS short codes on TV and in magazines. In this case, the user sent a premium SMS message with a request for a specific wallpaper or ringtone, and the content provider sent it back. Mobile operators generally liked these delivery mechanisms because they received a great portion of each messaging fee.
WAP fell short of commercial expectations. In some markets, such as Japan, it flourished, whereas in others, dote the United States, it failed to capture off. Handset screens were too petite for surfing. Reading a sentence fragment at a time, and then waiting seconds for the next segment to download, ruined the user experience, especially because every second of downloading was often charged to the user. Critics began to convene WAP “Wait and Pay.”
Finally, the mobile operators who provided the WAP portal (the default home page loaded when you started your WAP browser) often restricted which WAP sites were accessible. The portal allowed the operator to restrict the number of sites users could browse and to funnel subscribers to the operator’s preferred content providers and exclude competing sites. This benign of walled garden approach further discouraged third-party developers, who already faced difficulties in monetizing applications, from writing applications.
Proprietary Mobile Platforms
It came as no flabbergast when users wanted more—they will always want more.
Writing robust applications such as graphic-intensive video games with WAP was nearly impossible. The 18-year-old to 25-year-old sweet-spot demographic—the kids with the disposable income most likely to personalize their phones with wallpapers and ringtones—looked at their portable gaming systems and asked for a device that was both a phone and a gaming device or a phone and a music player. They argued that if devices such as Nintendo’s Game Boy could provide hours of entertainment with only five buttons, why not just add phone capabilities? Others looked to their digital cameras, Palms, Blackberries, iPods, and even their laptops and asked the selfsame question. The market seemed to breathe teetering on the edge of device convergence.
Memory was getting cheaper; batteries were getting better; and PDAs and other embedded devices were dawn to Run compact versions of common operating systems such as Linux and Windows. The traditional desktop application developer was suddenly a player in the embedded device market, especially with Smartphone technologies such as Windows Mobile, which they organize familiar.
Handset manufacturers realized that if they wanted to continue to sell traditional handsets, they needed to change their protectionist policies pertaining to handset design and expose their internal frameworks, at least, to some extent.
A variety of different proprietary platforms emerged—and developers are soundless actively creating applications for them. Some Smartphone devices ran Palm OS (now Garnet OS) and RIM Blackberry OS. Sun Microsystems took its celebrated Java platform and J2ME emerged (now known as Java Micro Edition [Java ME]). Chipset maker Qualcomm developed and licensed its Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW). Other platforms, such as Symbian OS, were developed by handset manufacturers such as Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, and Samsung. The Apple iPhone OS (OS X iPhone) joined the ranks in 2008. design 1.4 shows several different phones, complete of which occupy different progress platforms.
Figure 1.4 Phones from various mobile device platforms.
Many of these platforms occupy associated developer programs. These programs preserve the developer communities small, vetted, and under contractual agreements on what they can and cannot do. These programs are often required and developers must pay for them.
Each platform has benefits and drawbacks. Of course, developers care for to debate over which platform is “the best.” (Hint: It’s usually the platform we’re currently developing for.)
The veracity is no one platform has emerged victorious. Some platforms are best suited for commercializing games and making millions—if your company has brand backing. Other platforms are more open and suitable for the hobbyist or perpendicular market applications. No mobile platform is best suited for complete viable applications. As a result, the mobile phone has become increasingly fragmented, with complete platforms sharing fraction of the pie.
For manufacturers and mobile operators, handset product lines became complicated fast. Platform market penetration varies greatly by region and user demographic. Instead of choosing just one platform, manufacturers and operators occupy been forced to sell phones for complete the different platforms to compete. We’ve even seen some handsets supporting multiple platforms. (For instance, Symbian phones often too support J2ME.)
The mobile developer community has become as fragmented as the market. It’s nearly impossible to preserve track of complete the changes in the market. Developer specialty niches occupy formed. The platform progress requirements vary greatly. Mobile software developers toil with distinctly different programming environments, different tools, and different programming languages. Porting among the platforms is often costly and not straightforward. Keeping track of handset configurations and testing requirements, signing and certification programs, carrier relationships, and application marketplaces occupy become tangled spin-off businesses of their own.
It’s a nightmare for the ACME Company wanting a mobile application. Should they develop a J2ME application? BREW? iPhone? Windows Mobile? Everyone has a different benign of phone. ACME is forced to select one or, worse, complete of the above. Some platforms allow for free applications, whereas others execute not. perpendicular market application opportunities are limited and expensive.
As a result, many wonderful applications occupy not reached their desired users, and many other noteworthy ideas occupy not been developed at all.
Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language designed for the progress of software for consumer electronic devices, such as TVs, VCRs, toasters, etc.
Java is a platform neutral language, which means that it is not tied to any particular hardware or operating system. It guarantees users to ‘write once, Run anywhere.' The Java language is supported by almost every operating system, such as Sun Solaris, RedHat, Windows, etc.
The Java programming language was developed by Sun Microsystems of the USA in 1991, it was originally called Oak by James Gosling, who was one of the inventors of the language. The main goal for the developers was to get the language highly reliable, portable and simple.
The team for the progress of Java language included Patrick Naughton, who discovered that the existing languages such as C and C++ had some major drawbacks in terms of reliability and portability. They modeled the recent language Java on C and C++, while removing some features that they considered constraints. This made Java a really simple, portable, and powerful language. To learn Java basics, let’s revise the Java syntax.
The History of Java
There is a chronicle of events that occurred during the course of progress of the Java language.
1990: A team of Sun Microsystems programmers decided to develop a special software to exploit consumer electronic devices. The team headed by James Gosling.
1991: The team studied various languages present at that time, viz., C, and C++, and announced the recent language to breathe “Oak.”
1992: The team at Sun, known as the Green Project, demonstrated the application of their recent language, for example, to control a list of home appliances using a hand device with the tiny touchscreen.
1993: The World Wide Web came to the Internet and transformed the text-based Internet into a graphical, flush environment. The Green Project team came up with an conception of developing Web applets (tiny programs) that could Run on complete types of computers connected to the Internet.
1994: The team developed a web browser called “HotJava” to locate and Run applet programs on the Internet. This made it immensely celebrated amongst Internet users.
1995: Oak was renamed as “Java,” due to some legal snags. Java is the name and not an acronym.
1996: Java programming was established as the leader for Internet programming and too as a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. Sun released the Java progress Kit 1.0.
1997: Sun releases the Java progress Kit 1.1 (JDK 1.1)
1998: Sun releases Java 2 with version 1.2 of the Software progress Kit (SD K 1.2)
1999: Sun releases the Java 2 platform, standard Edition (J2SE), and Enterprise Edition (J2EE)
2000: Sun releases J2SE with SDK 1.3.
2002: Sun releases J2SE with SDK 1.4.
2004: This marked the release of J2SE with JDK 5.0 (instead of JDK 1.5), known as J2SE 5.0.
2006- Sun releases Java SE 6.
2011: Sun releases Java SE 7.
2014: Sun releases Java SE 8.
2017: Sun releases Java SE 9.
Features of Java Programming
The main goal was to design a language that could proffer solutions to problems encountered in modern programming. The goal was for the language to breathe reliable, portable, and distributed, and at the selfsame time, it needed to breathe simple, compact, and interactive.
Compiled and Interpreted
Java language combines both of these approaches, thus making Java a two-stage system. This approach was never offered before, as any language before was either compiled or interpreted.
Firstly, the Java compiler translates source code into bytecode instructions; bytecodes are not machine instructions.
Secondly, the Java interpreter generates machine code that can breathe directly executed by the machine that is running the Java program.
Independent and Portable
Java programs can breathe easily moved from one system to another, anywhere and anytime. With changes or an upgrade in the operating system, processors and system resources will not coerce any changes in Java programs.
Java programming ensures portability in two ways. Firstly, Java compiler generates bytecode instructions that can breathe implemented on any machine, and secondly, the size of the primitive data types are machine independent.
Almost everything in Java language is an object, which makes it a exact object-oriented language. complete program code and data reside within objects and classes. Java comes with an extensive set of classes that are arranged in packages, which can breathe used in program inheritance.
Robust and Secure
Java provides many safeguards to ensure amenable code. It has strict run-time, checking for data types. It is designed dote a garbage collected language, i.e., it captures series errors and eliminates any risk of crashing the system.
Java systems verify complete the memory access and, thus, ensure that no virus is communicated with an applet.
Java programming facilitates both the sharing of data and programs. Java applications can open and access remote objects on the Internet as easily as on any local system.
Simple, Small, and Familiar
Java is a simplified version of C++, which is why it is familiar and yet different as it eliminates complete the redundant and unreliable code. For example, Java does not expend pointers, preprocessor header files, and many others. It too eliminates operator overloading and multiple inheritances in Java.
Multithreaded and Interactive
Multithreaded means handling different tasks simultaneously. Java language supports multithreaded programs, which means that they need not occupy to wait for one assignment to finish for another to start. This feature of Java greatly improves the interactive performance of graphical applications.
Java programming performance is very impressive, considering the fact that is an interpreted language, mainly because of the bytecodes. Java architecture is designed to reduce overheads.
Dynamic and Extensible
Java is a dynamic language; it is capable of dynamically linking in recent class libraries, methods, and objects. It can too determine the sort of class through a query.
Ease of Development
Java 2 standard edition (J2SE) 5.0 supports features such as Generics, Enhanced for loop, Autoboxing or unboxing, Typesafe enums, varargs, Static import, and Annotation. These Java features get it facile for Java programmers by shifting the responsibility of creating the reusable code to the compiler, and also, the resulting code is free from bugs.
Scalability and Performance
J2SE 5.0 improves the startup time and reduces the amount of memory used in the Java 2 runtime environment. Learn more features of Java here.
Comparison: C Vs. Java Vs. C++
C Vs. Java
The major incompatibility between C and Java is that Java is an object-oriented language and has a mechanism to define classes and objects in Java. The features of C that are not included in Java are:
No unique statement keywords of C size and typedef
No data types, such as struct and union.
Java does not define the sort modifier keywords, such as auto, extern, register, signed and unsigned.
No support for the pointertype
Non-availability of preprocessor
Java requires that the function with no argument must breathe declared with empty parenthesis and with the void keyword.
New Java operators, such as instanceof and >>>.
Java programming has labeled shatter and continue statements.
Java Vs. C++
The main incompatibility between C++ and Java is that Java is a exact object-oriented language while C++ just adds an object-oriented extension to C. The increment operator in C++ indicates the selfsame thing.
The features listed below are intentionally omitted from Java to get it better.
No support for operator overloading.
No template classes as in C++.
A recent feature called “interface” in Java programming that does not support multiple inheritances.
Java language does not support global variables.
Java uses a finalize() function instead of the destructor function.
There are no header files in Java programming.
Let’s discuss Java Regular Expression and Java Array here.
Java Language and the Internet
Java is often called the "Internet language" because the first application program written in Java was HotJava, a web browser used to Run applets on the Internet. Internet users can expend Java to create applets and Run them locally using HotJava. A Java-enabled browser to download an applet located anywhere on the Internet can too breathe used.
Java applets occupy made the Internet a exact extension of the storage system on local computers. Internet users can too set up their websites containing Java applets that could breathe used by remote users.
Java Programming and World Wide Web
World Wide Web (www) is an information retrieval system where any information or file is identified as Uniform source Locators (URLs) and are interlinked via hypertext links. WWW can breathe accessed with the befriend of internet.
Internet and Java programming both had the selfsame philosophy, and thus, they were incorporated with each other easily. Java made it viable for the World Wide Web to support animation, graphics, games, and a wide ambit of special effects.
To communicate with any web page, Java uses APPLETs. The steps involved are:
The user requests for a hyperlink document to remote computer’s web server. (a web server receives, processes, and sends the requested document)
The document contains the APPLET tag, which identifies the applet.
Java source code file compiles the bytecode for that applet, which is then transferred to user’s computer.
The browser is enabled by Java and then interprets the bytecode and provides the output.
Java support Systems
The operations of Java and Java-enabled browsers on the Internet require a variety of support systems, namely:
HTML— a language for creating hypertext for the web
Proxy Server — an intermediate server between the requesting client workstation and the original server
The Java Environment
The Java environment includes a large number of Java development tools and Java classes and methods.
The Java progress tools are fraction of the system known as the Java progress Kit (JDK), and the classes and the methods in Java are a fraction of the Java standard Library (JSL), too known as the Application Programming Interface (API).
Java progress Kit (JDK)
The Java progress Kit includes:
appletviewer (for viewing Java applets)
javac ( Java compiler)
java ( Java interpreter )
javap ( Java disassembler )
javah ( for C header files)
javadoc ( for creating HTML files )
jdb ( Java debugger )
Application Programming Interface
The Java standard Library includes classes and packages, some most commonly used packages are the Language support Packages. This is a collection of Java classes and methods required for implementing basic features of Java.
Utility Package — To provide Java utility functions
Input/output Package — For Java input/output manipulation
Networking Package — For communicating via the Internet
AWT Package — The abstract window toolkit package contains classes that implement a platform-independent, graphical user interface.
Applet Package — this allows us to create Java applets.
Java Runtime Environment
The java Runtime Environment facilitates the execution of Java programs, comprising the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The JVM interprets the intermediate Java bytecode and generates the desired output.
Runtime class libraries — These are a set of core Java class libraries for execution of the Java program.
User interface toolkits — These are used for interaction with the Java application program.
1) Java plugin — This enables the execution of a Java applet.
2) Java Web start — This enables an application to directly launch from the web browser without installing. Learn more about Java Datatypes and Java Modifiers here.
Constructs are basically reserved keywords in any language, which cannot breathe used in comfort of the programs, i.e., a name of variables in Java, class, or method. Java has around 50 such words, they include:
Finally, In this Java guide, they erudite about the history of Java programming language, important Java features, how Java is different from C and C++, how it is incorporated in World Wide Web with befriend of Web browsers, and the environment required for running Java applications. Hope this helps. Let us know what you assume in the coments below!
No result found, try recent keyword!In the past, only hard-core C++ or Java programmers could create ActiveX Controls,” said Ken Miller, chief technology officer, 32X Inc. “Visual Basic 5.0, Control Creation Edition has removed .. ...